I AGREE
Use of cookies
In order to optimize and continuously improve our website, we utilize cookies. By continuing to use the website, you consent to the use of cookies. For more information on cookies, please refer to our Privacy Policy.

Knowledge Bank

WIOPEDIA - The WIOTEC® electroplating encyclopaedia


Knowledge from A - Z

V

Voltage series of the elements

The normal potentials of the listed metals are arranged from the highest negative to the highest positive value.

Base metals = metals with the highest negative normal potential - have a strong reducing effect and react easily with water and air.

The metal at the top of the voltage series (more negative potential) can displace a less noble metal below it from its solution, e.g., when metallic iron is added to a copper(II) salt solution: Cu2++ Fe Cu + Fe2+.

Some base metals form protective oxide layers on their surface. That is, they behave more nobly than corresponds to their strongly negative normal potential.

The metals in the following table are listed alphabetically:

Metal Redox system Normal potential (volts)
Aluminum AlAl3++ 3e‾ -1.69
Antimony SbSb3++ 3e‾ +0.2
Arsenic AsAs3++ 3e‾ +0.3
Beryllium BeBe2++ 2e‾ -1.85
Lead PbPb2++ 2e‾ -0.13
Cadmium CdCd2++ 2e‾ -0.40
Calcium CaCa2++ 2e‾ -2.87
Chromium CrCr3++ 3e‾ -0.71
Iron FeFe2++ 2e‾ -0.44
Gold AuAu++ e‾ +1.68
Gold AuAu3++ 3e‾ +1.36
Indium InIn3++ 3e‾ -0.34
Potassium KK++ e‾ -2.93
Cobalt CoCo2++ 2e‾ -0.28
Copper CuCu++ e‾ +0,52
Copper CuCu2++ 2e‾ +0.35
Magnesium MgMg2++ 2e‾ -2.38
Manganese MnMn2++ 2e‾ -1.05
Molybdenum MoMo3++ 3e‾ -0.2
Sodium NaNa++ e‾ -2.71
Nickel NiNi2++ 2e‾ -0.25
Palladium PdPd2++ 2e‾ +0.987
Platinum PtPt2++ 2e‾ +1.2
Mercury HgHg2++ 2e‾ +0.85
Mercury 2 HgHg22++ 2e‾ +0.789
Silver AgAg++ e‾ +0.799
Titanium TiTi3++ 3e‾ -1.21
Vanadium VV2++ 2e‾ -1.18
Hydrogen H22H++ 2e‾ ±0.0
Bismuth BiBi3++ 3e‾ +0.28
Tungsten W+8OHWO42++4H2O+6e‾ -1.10
Zinc ZnZn2++ 2e‾ -0.76
Tin SnSn2++ 2e‾ -0.16

This might also interest you ...

Other popular topics that are often clicked on include information on plastic finishing, metal finishing, chrome plating, galvanising, laser engraving or even tin plating:

Any questions? We’ll gladly assist you ...

Any questions?
We’ll gladly assist you ...

WIOTEC® Ense GmbH & Co. KG
Auf den Geeren 9-11
59469 Ense-Höingen, Germany

WIOTEC® Arnsberg GmbH & Co. KG
Wagenbergstraße 55
59759 Arnsberg, Germany

Phone
+49 2938 97833-0
Fax
+49 2938 97833-20
E-Mail
mailwiotec

From metal to precious metal
The company WIOTEC® is your specialist for surface finishing and metalworking. In our electroplating shop, which is managed according to the latest environmental standards, we are capable of finishing both small parts and long parts of up to six meters. This makes us one of the leading and most efficient decorative surface coaters in Europe.

Our most important resource is our employees - with their commitment, competence and experience. Together with them, we work out and develop individual and tailor-made solutions for our customers. From detailed consultation and planning to purchasing, mechanical and chemical pre-treatment, professional electroplating and supplementary services - WIOTEC®'s range of services leaves nothing to be desired.

© 2023 - WIOTEC® - ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

© 2023 - WIOTEC® - ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.


Call us:

Stacks Image 128

Claudia Schäfer
+49 2938 97833-11

Or write to us:


Brochures, data sheets, etc.