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Voltage series of the elements

The normal potentials of the listed metals are arranged from the highest negative to the highest positive value.

Base metals = metals with the highest negative normal potential - have a strong reducing effect and react easily with water and air.

The metal at the top of the voltage series (more negative potential) can displace a less noble metal below it from its solution, e.g., when metallic iron is added to a copper(II) salt solution: Cu2++ Fe Cu + Fe2+.

Some base metals form protective oxide layers on their surface. That is, they behave more nobly than corresponds to their strongly negative normal potential.

The metals in the following table are listed alphabetically:

Metal Redox system Normal potential (volts)
Aluminum AlAl3++ 3e‾ -1.69
Antimony SbSb3++ 3e‾ +0.2
Arsenic AsAs3++ 3e‾ +0.3
Beryllium BeBe2++ 2e‾ -1.85
Lead PbPb2++ 2e‾ -0.13
Cadmium CdCd2++ 2e‾ -0.40
Calcium CaCa2++ 2e‾ -2.87
Chromium CrCr3++ 3e‾ -0.71
Iron FeFe2++ 2e‾ -0.44
Gold AuAu++ e‾ +1.68
Gold AuAu3++ 3e‾ +1.36
Indium InIn3++ 3e‾ -0.34
Potassium KK++ e‾ -2.93
Cobalt CoCo2++ 2e‾ -0.28
Copper CuCu++ e‾ +0,52
Copper CuCu2++ 2e‾ +0.35
Magnesium MgMg2++ 2e‾ -2.38
Manganese MnMn2++ 2e‾ -1.05
Molybdenum MoMo3++ 3e‾ -0.2
Sodium NaNa++ e‾ -2.71
Nickel NiNi2++ 2e‾ -0.25
Palladium PdPd2++ 2e‾ +0.987
Platinum PtPt2++ 2e‾ +1.2
Mercury HgHg2++ 2e‾ +0.85
Mercury 2 HgHg22++ 2e‾ +0.789
Silver AgAg++ e‾ +0.799
Titanium TiTi3++ 3e‾ -1.21
Vanadium VV2++ 2e‾ -1.18
Hydrogen H22H++ 2e‾ ±0.0
Bismuth BiBi3++ 3e‾ +0.28
Tungsten W+8OHWO42++4H2O+6e‾ -1.10
Zinc ZnZn2++ 2e‾ -0.76
Tin SnSn2++ 2e‾ -0.16

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